Sunday, 29 May 2016

How I lost 24 kg of middle age spread! This is to help those still battling the bulge! I conquered middle age spread! This is how I did it..

Most importantly USE A SCALE! – A DIGITAL SCALE! Most of all don’t trust yourself and don’t lie to yourself because we have a strange way of lying to ourselves – WEIGH YOUR FOOD!! – DO NOT SKIP HOT LEMON WATER EVERY MORNING ON AN EMPTY COLON. I HAVE NOTICED THE MINUTE I SKIP MY WEIGHT BEGINS TO CREEP UP! - Use the juice of half a lemon or 1 small lemon together with a pinch baking soda added to prevent acid from stripping the enamel off your teeth as lemon juice is acid in your mouth but once it hits your stomach it becomes alkaline. - See this online BMI calculator to work out where you are at – For myself at close to age 55 to maintain my weight I need to consume 1,349 Calories daily and to lose weight I need to consume 1,079 maximum daily calories.
To lose weight, you must use up more calories than you take in. Since one pound equals 3,500 calories, you need to reduce your caloric intake by 500—1000 calories per day to lose about 1 to 2 pounds per week. 4.184 kilojoules = 4,184 joules = 1 Calorie. If you eat less 520 calories daily of your daily recommended calorie intake you can lose 1 kg every 15 – 16 days.
If you are 50 years old, weigh 150 pounds and are 5 feet, 8 inches tall, your BMR is 1,392. If you go walking three times per week, multiply your BMR by 1.375. Your recommended daily calorie intake is 1,914. With your BMR you can now figure out your daily caloric intake by determining your weekly activity level and multiplying your BMR by the corresponding factor. If you get little to no exercise, multiply your BMR by 1.2 If you do light exercise one to three days a week, multiply by 1.375. For moderate exercise five days a week, multiply by 1.55. And for strenuous exercise, multiply by 1.725.  To work out yours click here.
To keep track of your daily intake of calories my top choice and once in just click log in, tools, Recipe Analyzer, enter your ingredients and click Analyze Recipe. My 2nd choice is which will give you a detailed list of nutrients.
To work out your daily calorie intake and
It takes a 3,500-calorie reduction to lose one pound. You can lose two pounds in a week by reducing your intake by 1,000 calories daily You’re 52 years old, 5 foot 10 and weigh 145 lbs., your is 1,370. If you usually walk briskly a couple times per week for exercise, multiply your BMR by 1.375 to find that you should be eating 1,883 calories per day to maintain your current weight. Daily intake for a 53 year lady 160cm height to maintain current weight is: 1533 calories daily. Work out yours with this BMI calculator here. My target is to reach a BMI of 18.5 which is 105 lbs or 47/250 kg.  See Your Daily Calorie Needs - Click here.


BMR Basal metabolic rate (BMR), and the closely related resting metabolic rate (RMR), is the rate of energy expenditure by humans and other animals at rest, and is measured in kJ per hour per kg body mass.
Example: For a person with a max daily calorie intake of 1533 to maintain weight less 1112 calories = Daily intake of 421 = Calorie loss of 1 kg weekly - So you see how hard this is ? Today I can get by on a minimum of 820 nutrient dense calories daily if I want to drop my weight and that is my minimum. Look after your gut bacteria as it has been proven that an obese person given the gut bacteria of a skinny person becomes thin! See how to boost your probiotics - click here and 


            The molecular and biochemistry of the body can be changed by diet. If you see some of the books on reversal diets (to reverse clogged arteries), they focus on eating 10 grams or less of fat daily, and eating all the vegetables you want, not fried. You can eat grains on that diet, but be careful of a wheat belly if you are sensitive to gluten or insulin-producing wheat. One way to look at fats is to calculate the number of fat grams that you eat.
            How to calculate fats and calories
            One gram of fat equals 9 calories. If you say that fat has 9 calories per gram, you can eat 600 calories from fat. You write down 600 calories dived by 9. That equals 66.6 grams of fat you can eat daily. This figure is given by the American Heart Association. But the recommendations from the AHA has never reversed clogged arteries or any disease, according to numerous doctors. That 66 g of fat is a tiny part of what most Americans eat today as hidden fats in their foods.
            For example, to eat 4 grams of fat, you can eat a pat of butter. But if you use a tablespoon of butter to fry food in or to melt on your pancakes, you just ate 14 grams of fat because one tablespoon of butter or olive oil or any type of fat, even rendered chicken fat is still 14 grams of fat.
            If you make cookies using a stick of butter, that’s 4 ounces, which equals 92 grams of fat. You can choose olive oil instead of butter and pick monosaturated oil instead of saturated dairy fat that probably stuffed up the iceman’s arteries because his genes predisposed him to it. Perhaps he had so few cholesterol receptors on his liver that the plaque built up in his arteries instead of getting removed. Other people have many cholesterol receptors on their liver that does remove some of the cholesterol from diet.
            Regardless of whether you’re eating thin polyunsaturated oils or melted chicken fat, butter, or bacon drippings, one tablespoon of fat is going to equal 14 grams of fat. That’s what most people drizzle over a salad or do a stir-fry with, a tablespoon of oil or butter or any type of fat that melts when heated, whether it’s lard, coconut oil, or sesame seed oil. Some oils are saturated and some are not. But oils do have different effects on the body. Soy bean oil has a different affect on the body from peanut oil, cottonseed oil, palm oil, cocoa butter, walnut oil, and butter or chicken fat acts differently with different genetic predispositions than sesame seed oil or rice bran oil.

            Mango: 135 cal in 1 mango
            Melon / Cantaloupe: Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) 141 kJ (34 kcal) excellent source of Vitamin A, (100 g provides 3382 IU or about 112% of recommended daily levels) one of the highest among fruits. Vitamin A is a powerful antioxidant and is essential for vision. It is also required for maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin.
            Peach: 1 peach 42 cal
            Watermelon: Per 100 grams
            Calories 30. A whole watermelon that weighs approximately 9 pounds has 1355 calories
            Pecan Nuts There are 691 calories in 100 grams of Pecan Nuts.
            Plums: 30 cal in 1 plum
            Butter: 717 calories in 100 grams of butter / 221 calories in 100 g my own cream cheese
            Cream Heavy whipping 2,080 cal per litre
            Milk Whole, 1 liter would be roughly 600 calories
            Whey A 1-cup serving of liquid whey, weighing 246 g, contains 66 calories.
            1 cup heavy cream (520cals)

            9 Sept: 1 med apple = 80 cal + 2 large boiled eggs = 156 cal + 1 (56g) chicken fillet = 55 cal (per gram = .98 of a cal) + 1 med grapefruit = 82 cal + (4 cal per strawberry x 32 = 1punnet being 250g) = 128 cal + 2 cups milk = 300 cal + 200g raisins = (299 cal per 100g) + 598 cal + 18rounded tsp instant coffee powder = 4cal per rounded tsp x 20 = 80 cal daily intake Coffee Daily + 170g steamed broccoli = 60 cal. Total: 1,539 cal
            There are 4 calories in 1 gram of Instant Coffee (Powder, Half The Caffeine).
            10 Sept: 6g instant coffee per cup (2 heaped tsp – I weighed it = [6g]) = 24 Cal per cup + (= 3g per heaped tsp)+(56g milk per cuppa) = 36 cal per cuppa coffee (Total Cal per cup coffee = 24cal coffee + 36 cal of milk = Total of 60 calories per cup coffee x 5 cups = 300 cal + 96g piece of apple = 50 cal Daily Total: 290 cal
            1 litre milk = 670 calories, 100 ml =67 calories ~ Whole Milk weighs ~ 1.03 Kg/l (1030 g/l) calories 100g apple? 52 calories
            150 g large packet Willards Cheese Curls Total: 767 cal (Whole bag)
            1 medium Avo = 250 cal + 1 med tomato = 22 cal + 100g sugar = 389 cal + 100g Cornflour = 381 cal + 100g Cake flour = 339 cal + 100g butter = 707 calories.
            Banana: There are 105 calories in 1 medium Banana
            Beef Shin:182 calories per 100g
            Butter: Calories in 100g butter: Calories: There are 717 calories in 100 grams of Butter (Salted).
            Carrots – Raw (Generic) The average amount of Calories in 100g of carrots, based on the list below is 32.00 kcal of Calories. Maximum calories is in raw carrots is 41 kcal of Calories per 100g. 1 cup, chopped, Calories: 52.5, Fat: 0.3g, Carbs: 12.3g, Protein: 1.2g
            Chicken Fillet per 100g A 100g of chicken breast fillet has 116 calories. A 140g cooked, stewed chicken breast with meat and skin has 258 calories = 184.28571 Cal per 100g.
            Chicken Fat/Juices – Roasted Chicken Drippings Servings: Calories 115 per tblsp
            Chocolate: White. 1686 kJ 90g slab of Beacon Muesli Supreme Chocolate = 403 Cal
            Corn flour calories in with the help of weight loss for good’s calories in … (g/100g) (Calories) (kcal/100g) 365:
            Cream: Fresh Whipping cream per 100g Calories: Cream, fluid, heavy whipping. Per 120 g Calories: 414. There are 51 calories in 1 tablespoon of Heavy Cream. … Includes: whipping cream. There are 821 calories in 1 cup fluid
            Per 15 g Heavy Whipping Cream Calories: 52
            Egg ..There are 74 calories in 1 large Egg
            Flour Plain Flour..Serving Size: 100g Amount per Serving. Calories 364. Calories
            Grapes: 69 Calories in 100g of grapes
            Beef: Mince 20% fat per 100 g regular @ 20% fat – 290 calories with 170 from fat = 120 from meat lean @ 15% fat – 240 calories with 140 from fat = 120 from meat extra lean @ 15%(?) fat – 260 calories with 140 from fat = 140 from meat
            Banana: There are 105 calories in 1 medium Banana
            Butter: Calories in 100 g butter: Calories: There are 717 calories in 100 grams of Butter (Salted).
            Bread: 266 calories in 100 grams of White Bread.
            Carrots – Raw (Generic) The average amount of Calories in 100 g of carrots, based on the list below is 32.00 kcal of Calories. Maximum calories is in raw carrots is 41 kcal of Calories per 100g. 1 cup, chopped, Calories: 52.5, Fat: 0.3g, Carbs: 12.3g, Protein: 1.2
            Cayenne Chili Pepper: 6 calories in 1 tsp dried.
            Chicken Fillet per 100g – A 100g of chicken breast fillet has 116 calories. A 140g cooked, stewed chicken breast with meat and skin has 258 calories.
            Chicken Fat/Juices – Roasted Chicken Drippings: 1 tablespoon = 115 Calories
            Chicken Liver: 116 calories in 100 grams of Chicken Liver.
            Cayenne Peppers: calories for 2g (1tsp ) is 8Cal at 419Cal per 100g serving size Chilies: 17 calories in 1 tablespoon of Red or Cayenne Pepper.
            Coffee: Instant Coffee (1 round tsp) (2 g) = 4 Calories
            Corn flour per 100 g = 365 calories
            Milk – 1 liter full cream or whole milk = 670 calories
            Cream: 821 calories in 1 cup of fluid of Whipping Cream.Fresh Whipping cream per 100 g Calories: Cream, fluid, heavy whipping. Per 120 g Calories: 414. There are 51 calories in 1 tablespoon of Heavy Cream. … Includes: whipping cream. There are 821 calories in 1 cup fluid
            Per 15 g Heavy Whipping Cream Calories: 52.
            Dates: 282 calories in 100 grams of Dates.
            Egg – 74 calories in 1 large Egg.
            Flour Plain Flour..Serving Size: 100 g Amount per Serving. Calories 364. Calories
            Mielie meal / maizemeal per 100g=124cal
            Mushrooms: 28 calories in an average 3½ oz or 100g serving of mushrooms
            Nutmeg, ground (Generic) Serving Size: 1 tbsp = 37 Calories
            Nutmeg 28g (~1 oz.) Calories 147 per 28g whole nutmeg. 525 Cal per 100 grams
            1 whole nutmeg equivalent to 2 grams (11 Cal)
            Cooking Oils: All oils have about 120 calories per tablespoon.
            Onions per 100g= 36 – 42cal
            Lemons zest and juice of 1 lemon = 22 cal (1 whole lemon with peel)
            Lemon Zest 1 tsp = 1 calorie
            Lemon Curd (1 tbsp). calories: 65 cal
            100 calories in a 1 tbsp serving of Trader Joe’s Lemon Curd.
            0.03 ml of Lemon Curd = 200 Calories
            Paw Paw / Papaya: Per 100g = 44 calories
            Peppers, Capsicum, Red Raw 100g = 32Cal
            Potato White with skin per 100g =70cal
            Potato, Baked, Flesh & Skin 1 Med/180g = 245 Cal
            Potatoes, New, Boiled in Salted Water per 100g = 53 Cal
            Oats: Calories in 100g of Porridge Oats: Calories: 368
            raisins per 100g: 299 calories
            Rice per 100g=129-130 cal
            Semolina: 360 calories per 100 grams Semolina (Enriched). 601 calories in 1 cup of Semolina.
            Strawberries: 4 cal per strawberry
            Sweet Red Peppers: 26 calories in 100 grams of Sweet Red Peppers
            Sugar White ..There are 389 calories in 100 grams
            Caster Sugar. … Sugar. per 1 tsp – Calories: 16kcal
            per Tblsp = 48 cal 16 calories in 1 teaspoon of Sugar
            Powdered Sugar = 389 calories per 100 grams
            Sago Per 100 grams = 355 Calories
            Sour Cream: 250ml = 541 Cal
            Tapioca Per 100 grams = 358 Calories
            Tomatoes cooked per 100g=18cal
            Tomato, Raw 1 Med/85g = 14 calories
            Yeast dried 35 calories in 1 tablespoon of dry Yeast.
            Kidney beans per 100g=333cal
            Pasta per 100g=156cal
            Milk per 100g=60cal
            Cheddar Cheese per 100g=403cal
            Parmesan grated per 100g=431cal
            Plum 30 cal per plum
            Garlic per 100g=149cal
            Calorie counter shows how many calories in popular fruit and vegetables:
            Red Kidney Beans In Water, Tesco* 1 Can/420g = 391 cals
            Banana Fresh, Weighed Without Skin 1 Med/150g = 143 cals
            Sweet Corn, Green Giant* 1 Can/200g = 140 cals
            Apricots, Dried, Sundora*1 Serving/50g = 83 cals
            Pear, Average, Raw 1 Med/170g = 68 cals
            Orange 1 Med/160g = 59 cals
            Garden Peas, Bird’s Eye* 1 Serving/85g = 53 cals
            Cherries, Black, Raw 100g = 51 cals
            Apples, Eating, Raw 1 Med/112g = 53 cals
            Mango, Raw 225g = 60 cals
            Blueberries, Raw 100g = 60 cals
            Kiwi Fruit 100g = 49 cals
            Peach, Raw 1 Med/110g = 36 cals
            Plums 100g = 36 cals
            Satsumas 100g = 36 cals
            Cauliflower, Raw 100g = 34 cals
            Broccoli, Green, Raw 100g = 33 cals
            Carrots, Young, Raw 100g = 30 cals
            Broccoli, Raw 100g = 30 cals
            Strawberries, Raw 100g = 27 cals
            Melon, Average 100g = 24 cals
            Green Beans, French Beans Boiled in Unsalted Water 100g = 22
            Courgette, Raw 100g = 18 cals
            Grapes, Average 100g = 17 cals
            Lettuce, Average, Raw 100g = 14 cals
            Mushrooms, Common, Raw 100g = 13 cals
            Cucumber, Raw 100g = 10 cals
            Beef: rump steak per 100g raw weight = 229 Cal
            Meat: Lamb: The meat in lamb is like the meat in any other animal. How many calories it contains is a factor of which cut of meat you’re eating. Different parts of the lamb have more fat in the muscles than others.
            A lamb’s foreshank is cut from the arm or shoulder and usually cooked by braising or boiling. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, a 3-oz. serving of braised foreshank with fat trimmed contains 201 calories. Fat and lean together delivers
            Leg of Lamb
            The leg of lamb is a popular serving choice. A 3-oz. serving contains 165 calories. Note that, in most cases, the meat on a restaurant serving of leg of lamb is more than 3 oz.Shoulder
            A shoulder cut of lamb comes off the top of the arm, ss a whole square cut or in chops. In either case, a 3-oz. serving contains 264 calories.
            Read more – Calories in lamb
            The above calorie information has been taken from Weight Loss Resources.
            Calculating fats and calories in foods: Books on reversing clogged arteries
            calculating grams of fats and oils in foods
            November 9, 2012
            By: Anne Hart
            Calculating fats and calories in foods: Low-fat diet books on reversing clogged arteries.
            Grams of fat on food labels refer to one tiny serving that unrealistically most people won’t limit the food to one serving, such as a quarter of a cup or an ounce. Eating all the food on a plate or everything in a package is common.
            Even though half of these expenses are covered by the federal, local, and state government, the USA is under the number 12 in health globally. If you look at statistics, you can ask whether it’s genetic or dietary as a reason why 18 million American have coronary artery disease–hardening of the arteries. It’s not new.
            Oetzi, the iceman had clogged-up arteries
            The frozen Neolithic age body of Oetzi the iceman, whose 5,000-year-old remains were found in the Alps 21 years ago, might have died of a heart attack had he lived longer and was allergic to milk products, new research suggests. What did he eat? Certainly he had to have lots of exercise. But what he didn’t know is how to tailor his diet to his DNA or specifically to how many cholesterol receptors were on his liver and how tiny his LDL particles were, which he inherited from his family.
            He could have observed family history, but that may not have inspired him to make the connection between diet and health, since food was difficult to find, particularly in those snowy winters. People living on coastal areas in those times had fishing communities and also ate shellfish. Farming had only just reached the area, and what was growing in popularity were dairy products, lots of fatty meats, and grains instead of green, leafy vegetables and berries. Not many people had the chance to grow garden vegetables. And there were conflicts between hunter-gatherers and new farmers in the area.
            Raw data analyzed from a sequencing of Oetzi’s DNA, researchers have discovered he was genetically predisposed to cardiovascular disease, and that he already had a hardening of the arteries when he was killed. When did the genetic predisposition begin? It already existed in Oetzi’s lifetime. See, 5,000 year-old ‘iceman’ may have had heart disease – New York. Was he on a Paleo diet or a vegetable and grain-based Neolithic diet? Did he eat lots of dairy? And were his genes set up to eat a different type of diet?
            Scientists found that he had clogged arteries. See, Iceman Frozen for Millennia Had Lyme Clogged Arteries. Ötzi the Tyrolean iceman died in middle age some 5,300 years ago, most likely after sustaining a head injury and taking an arrow to the shoulder.
            He reemerged from obscurity in September 1991, when two German tourists hiking through Italy’s Ötztal Alps wandered off the designated path and spotted his naturally mummified corpse in a melting glacier. Researchers have investigated various aspects of the remarkably preserved individual’s life and death over the last two decades, from his final meal to his probable profession to whether he underwent a primitive form of acupuncture.
            It’s obvious he wasn’t on a vegan diet. Chances are he ate plenty of meat, fish, and animal fat and didn’t know he was predisposed to a family history of heart disease and clogged arteries. He may have also eaten grains, berries, and cheese. Ötzi shares a common ancestor with a part of the modern population in Sardinia and Corsica, rare in Europe, except in isolated areas such as these islands. Perhaps he should have been on his native ancestral Mediterranean diet of that time. Somehow he or his ancestors walked from where he originated to the South Tyrol and was found high on a mountain near the border of Italy and Austria.
            Scientists note that probably he was an active hunter-gatherer who never struggled with obesity, indulged in junk food or smoked a cigarette. What caused the iceman to be at risk for arteriosclerosis—a hardening of the arteries caused by fatty deposits and known to trigger heart attacks.
            The disease is not new or modern. It also has been found in ancient Egyptian mummies along with tooth decay from a diet high in sweet fruits and bread. But the mutations already occurred more than 5,000 years ago. Genetic factors a more significant role in what causes hardening of the arteries in environments where there isn’t the type of air pollution you find today or modern foods. What he ate and how his genes responded make the melting of coronary plaque a big issue that’s hard to control without a reversal diet that cuts down fats and oils of any type to 10% or less of the diet.
            The iceman also had the bacterium responsible for Lyme disease, a tick-borne infection first described in 1975 but thought to have affected humans for thousands of years. Lyme disease affects the joints and nervous system. Scientists need to compare the Neolithic strain of this bacterium to the modern sequence to see how the Lyme disease bacterium evolved in the past 5,000 years.
            The Neolithic Tyrolean iceman shouldn’t have been drinking milk and eating cheese. He probably had been lactose intolerant, scientists noted. When the iceman lived, people in his area had only just begun to domesticate animals and consume dairy products during his lifetime. Did he drink too much milk fat for his genes? Should he have eaten a vegan diet with less than 10% fats? Or should he have eaten vegetables and lean meats and no milk products or grains? The question is what would have helped him, vegan diet or Paleo diet? He had O blood type, the so-called “cave-man” blood type that is supposed to do well on a Paleo diet of perhaps fish, green vegetables, and some berries. But was he eating a diet more suitable to grain farmers or consuming too much cholesterol and fats for his genes?
            In his era, most people were still intolerant to lactose in milk. It took thousands of years before some people were able to even tolerate milk products such as cheese. Researchers need to investigate when the change took place. What’s certain is that his diet didn’t do his arteries much good.
            In those days as now, people went with taste. Fat made food taste better, especially when no salt was around. In modern times fats make up 40% or more of the American diet. In the iceman’s time, fats may have been all the food around, but which fats, from fish or meat, milk or cheese? He wasn’t pressing any olive oil in the Tyrol Alps 5,400 years ago. Olives didn’t grow that far north or at that high elevation.
            Remember one tablespoon of olive oil or butter or any other fat is 14 grams of fat. Could a change of oil or diet have helped the iceman live longer, even with lyme disease? What we can learn is that diet has more healing power than bypass surgery, if the diet is a reversal diet for those with clogged arteries. In the iceman’s day, agriculture had just begun. There was little food processing other than cooking or fermenting.
            Trans fats clog up the arteries. But the iceman didn’t eat trans fats because he didn’t have the technology to hydrogenate soybean or cotton seed oil or even know about soybeans or cotton seeds in the Austrian Tyrol 5,400 years ago. If you’re on a reversal diet to unclog arteries and your doctor suggests you eat 10 g of fat or less daily, you know a tablespoon of any fats equal 14 g of fat when you need to reduce the spoonful of oil or fat to 10 g and only eat two teaspoons instead of three teaspoons.
            Your body does get fats from vegetables and you do need fats to survive so your heart and brain can work. You need fats. But on a reversal diet, the question is how much or little fat is needed to reverse the clogged arteries. And that’s what your doctor measures as your diet progresses.
            What’s full of fat are burgers made from meat instead of vegetables and grains and juices, cheese, and butter. If you make pasta with a cup of melted cheese over the top, that cup of cheese is about 37 grams of fat, assuming it’s melted cheddar cheese.
            Cakes, cookies, and doughnuts are full of fat. Bacon and eggs are full of fat. In fact, your typical restaurant scrambled egg platter has 34 grams of fat or more depending in what fats the eggs were fried. A serving of commercial salad dressing usually has 37 grams of fat, unless all you drizzle on your salad is a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar and a spoon of sauerkraut perhaps diluted with another tablespoon of berry juice.
            A serving of fried potatoes adds 13 grams of fat or more, depending on how the potatoes were fried. If you nibble on a fast-food restaurant-prepared tiny chicken thigh that’s fried in fats, that adds more than 31 grams of fat. If you want to check the grams of fat in the foods of various fast-food restaurants, check out the menus on the websites. See KFC to Fry Chicken Without Trans Fats and See How Many Calories in Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) Chicken.
            According to the site, KFC chicken pot pie (not original recipe fried chicken) has 80 grams of fat in two servings and 40 grams of fat in one serving. Check how small a serving really is. Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) Original Recipe Chicken contains 42 grams of fat in two servings and only 21 grams of fat in one serving of the original recipe chicken breast.
            What all this boils down to is that 60% of Americans in the USA are considered overweight. Heart disease and clogged arteries are the most frequent killers, and few people know about the various reversal diets made famous by nutrition and health books such as Dr. Ornish, Dr. Hyman, and Dr. Fuhrman. Few newspaper popular recipes publish sea vegetable recipes or how to stir fry in wine or vinegar and fruit juice or steaming food in boiling water, dehydrating foods, or eating some raw foods.
            Are you eating 5 grams a fat daily or less or 10 grams? After a month, are your clogged arteries starting to reverse, according to any tests you take with your health care team? For more information also check out, The Complete Up-to-Date Fat Book: Karen J. Bellerson, published by Avery Publishing Group, 1993.

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